Postcolonialism has also been a term used to reinterpret western canonical literature from a variety of fresh and diverse perspectives. • Postcolonial literature is the literature of countries that were colonized , mainly by European countries. The chart will help you see how to approach a post-colonial reading of a text. Read some information about Achebe's life and see if this information helps you to understand the poem more fully. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Postcolonial theorists and historians have been concerned with investigating the various trajectories of modernity as understood and experienced from a range of philosophical, cultural, and historical perspectives. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Create your account. This class is intended to serve as a general introduction to postcolonial literature and theory. Fanon’s work emphasized the complex relation between imperialism and nationalism that remained a critical focus of much postcolonial writing. 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Nation-building is a major concern by the post-colonial writers. They have been particularly concerned with engaging with the ambiguous legacy of the Enlightenment—as expressed in social, political, economic, scientific, legal, and cultural thought—beyond Europe itself. In other words, cultures are more than 'us' and 'other'; they are the sum of their histories. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Orientalism by Edward Said: Summary & Concept, A Passage to India: Forster's Treatment of Colonialism, Introduction to Literary Theory: Major Critics and Movements, Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys: Summary, Analysis & Characters, Analyzing American Drama: Techniques and Plays, T.S. c. 1960 The term "Postcolonialism" refers broadly to the ways in which race, ethnicity, culture, and human identity itself are represented in the modern era, after many colonized countries gained their independence. Create an account to start this course today. This type of criticism also seeks to dispel universality in literature, which claims that great literature has universal significance. Leading theorists include Edward Said and Homi Bhabha, with Said focusing on stereotypes and Bhabha focusing on cultural hybridity. History It was during the latter era in particular that many of the international principles and instruments of decolonization were formally declared (although the history of their emergence and formation goes back much farther) and that the language of national self-determination was applied to liberationist movements within former colonial territories. This is true for literature that comes out of any colonized nation. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. John Stuart Mill’s justification of the denial of Indian self-government is a classic instance of that kind of assumption, however much he thought it was best for the well-being of Indians themselves. Post-colonialism studies the literature of former colonies, and this quiz/worksheet combo will help you test your understanding of the seminal works … Read The Grass is Singing by Doris Lessing. It exists on all continents except Antarctica. Apply what you have learned about development and development theories so speculate on the following thought experiment: What, if anything, might be different about today's international economic ord. Whether it has to do with the threat of nuclear weapons or the deaths of workers in factories churning out goods for Western markets, postcolonialism asks us to analyse these issues from the … James, Aimé Césaire, Albert Memmi, Frantz Fanon, and Edward Said, as well as by the group of historians associated with the editorial collective of Subaltern Studies, all exemplify that complex inheritance. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Orwell served a period as a police officer in Burma during the period of colonization in that country. In that sense, to be concerned with postcolonialism is to be concerned with a set of questions at the heart of modern political thought. Most postcolonial theorists—whether writing about Africa, South Asia, or elsewhere—have been critical of nationalism but also equally critical of the “nativism” and romantic communitarianism often supposed to be alternatives to it. Postcolonialism is for all those interested in postcolonial and literary theory and humanities research and pedagogy. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/topic/postcolonialism, University of Wisconsin Madison Center for the Humanities - Postcolonialism. Postcolonialism as a literary theory (with a critical approach), deals with literature produced in countries that once were colonies of other countries, especially of the European colonial powers Britain, France, and Spain; in some contexts, it includes countries still in colonial arrangements. As you can imagine, the people of India, as well as the characters in Indian novels, must deal with the economic, political, and emotional effects that the British brought and left behind. For example, the British had a colonial presence in India from the 1700s until India gained its independence in 1947. Literature can be classified into different types. Postcolonial literature is the literary work generated by people from previously colonized nations. Like the African American community in the United States, official freedom did not eliminate racial discrimination in Rhodesia after actual freedom was achieved. To identify the uniqueness and generosity of a particular work of art, a scholar needs the aid of literary theory since it lays down certain principles of literature which describe the features and forms that make up the literary … Because it's a literature born out of the struggle of colonized peoples for justice, equality and freedom. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Positive Learning Environments in Physical Education, Curriculum Development for Physical Education, Creating Routines & Schedules for Your Child's Pandemic Learning Experience, How to Make the Hybrid Learning Model Effective for Your Child, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning, Christmas in Latin America: Traditions, Food & Decorations, What are Online Learning Tools? This novel addresses the cultural and religious struggles that Nigerians faced following British colonization. The key difference between post colonialism and neo colonialism is that post colonialism refers to the study of the issues with concern to colonialism and the decolonization period whereas neocolonialism refers to the use of the economic and socio-political influential forces by the west to spread their hegemony to the other parts of the world. Updates? The demonic other is based on in the literature such as Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India.The “Exotic Other” represents the fascination of the undeveloped or the primitive. Postcolonialism signals a possible future of overcoming colonialism, yet new forms of … degrees in Curriculum and Development and Mental Health Counseling, followed by a Ph.D. in English. In doing this, Bhabha focused on the collective effects of colonization on peoples and cultures. Postcolonial theorists have also been critical of the assumption, often made by liberals, that what is needed is simply the extension of existing liberal universals, this time in good faith, to those to whom they were previously denied (or never seriously intended). That critical lens, post-colonial theory or post-colonialism, asks the reader to analyze and explain the effects that colonization and imperialism, or the extension of power into other nations, have on people and nations. Ginna earned M.Ed. I am Dr. Masood Raja and this channel features my … However, postcolonialism is also closely associated with a more-specific set of questions, and, although it should not be reduced to these questions, they have proved to be enormously influential. It also seeks to retrieve a pre-colonial past to project a better future. In short, postcolonial literature is that which has arisen primarily since the end of World War II from regions of the world undergoing decolonization. Post-colonial theory looks at issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and culture and how these elements work in relation to colonial hegemony (Western colonizers controlling the colonized). The chart will help you see how to approach a post-colonial reading of a text. Study.com has thousands of articles about every These struggles included, but certainly were not limited to, religious differences and cultural challenges. The conditions attached for the ascription of rights, for example, or the distribution of liberties were often grounded in narratives of social or cultural development that justified denying rights and freedoms to those deemed too backward or uncivilized to exercise them properly. For example, Fanon combined a material and psychological analysis of the consequences of colonialism, which looked to both the micro- and macroeffects and experience of colonial government. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Specifically, post-colonial critics are concerned with literature produced by colonial powers and works produced by those who were/are colonized. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal As mentioned, post-colonialism asks the reader to enter a text through the post-colonial lens. Toward that end, we will be reading a number of the most influential theorists of Postcolonialism as well as some of the novels that have been of particular importance to debates and discussions in the field. The theoretical tools provided by the Enlightenment, combined with an often unrelenting cultural Eurocentrism, informed the political and economic practices of imperialism throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. In doing this, Said focused specifically on our stereotypes of Middle-Easterners; however, these same ideas can be extended to include how we view all 'others.' Postcolonialism, the historical period or state of affairs representing the aftermath of Western colonialism; the term can also be used to describe the concurrent project to reclaim and rethink the history and agency of people subordinated under various forms of imperialism. How does Lessing's narrative reflect lingering racial discrimination and prejudice? What perceptions of the world, the nation, and the self does the text challenge/reinforce. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Read this brief essay and see if you can pinpoint how the experience of the protagonist speaks to attitudes of colonizers and the colonized. As a label, it thus covers a very wide range of writings from countries that were once colonies or dependencies of the European powers. There is a tradition of anti-imperialist criticism that extends as far back as the 16th century, and yet some of the very same criticism not only was compatible with but was often used to justify imperial domination. Literature is the art of using the language to express human sentiments. The post-colonial theorist enters these texts through a specific critical lens, or a specific way of reading a text. Works from such regions in the 20th and 21st centuries, such as the Indian subcontinent, Nigeria, South Africa, and numerous parts of the Caribbean, for example, might be described as postcolonial. Postcolonial theory is a body of thought primarily concerned with accounting for the political, aesthetic, economic, historical, and social impact of European colonial rule around the world in the 18th through the 20th century. Others entail the “Demonic Other” and “Exotic Other.”The “Demonic Other” represents the negative, savage, inferior and evil. Postcolonial literature often addresses the problems and consequences of the decolonization of a country, especially questions relating to the political and cultural independence of formerly subjugated people. She has over 30 years of teaching experience. The seminal work of C.L.R. Although there were (and are) many different kinds of imperialism and thus of decolonization, two of the most-important periods for those who study postcolonialism include the British disengagement from its second empire (of the 19th and 20th centuries) and the decolonization movements of the 1960s and ’70s in Africa and elsewhere. Read the poem "Answer" and see what you think the message or theme might be. As a reader, you would look for the effects of colonialism and how they are addressed through the plot, setting, and characters' actions. Services. Moreover, the history of imperialism is complex. Violence was inevitable and necessary, Fanon seemed to be arguing in The Wretched of the Earth, but it also has to be overcome. What disadvantages are there? Postcolonialism means ongoing issues and debates between East and West since the colonial process started. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. 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Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The literature of the British Empire falls mainly into two different camps that reflected the different opinions of the time. His work, including Orientalism, focused on exploring and questioning the artificial boundaries, or the stereotypical boundaries, that have been drawn between the East and West, specifically as they relate to the Middle East. Explain the title of the novel White Teeth. Based at the National University of Singapore. Post colonialism literature is the literature by people from formerly colonized countries. The term post colonialism concerns the effects of colonialism on cultures and communities which are originally historians used it after … credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Postcolonial is a term used for an era when colonies achieved freedom from European colonization. Chinua Achebe is considered one of the most significant post-colonial authors. 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