Xerophytes are a group of plants who have adapted to living in an environment with very little water. For example, a Cactus has the same feature, whether it is in a desert or in a normal land. What are hydrophytes? In this plant the leaves are scaly and shed soon after rainy season. Xerophytes adapt to limit water loss in various ways. The lower surface of the leaf is thickly cuticularized. Outer 3 to 4 cortical layers consist palisade cells with chloroplast. Examples of ephemeral plants are— Carthamus oxycantha, Solanum xanthocarpum, Suaeda fruticosa, Tribulus terrestris, Trianthema monogyna. This is because they are adapted to survive throughout all seasons, and have no specific adaptations to deal with extreme cold or heat. Create your account. In the plant species like Lemna, Ecchorhnia etc. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. To do this plants have developed succulent leaves, plant stems, or tubers that can store water when it cannot be obtained directly from the environment. Ecological niche of mesophytes . Especially in those extremely dry climates. succeed. Did you know… We have over 220 college In xerophytes certain structural features are also common. Log in here for access. Anatomical Adaptations of Xerophytes. Services. Ø Hydrophytes (aquatic plants, water plants) are plants growing in or near water. Rolled Leaves (Xerophytes Adaptation)-if there is a reduced available water, the leaf will curl with the lower surface inside -cuticle and upper epidermis extends all … Adaptation is the adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment. These adaptations are numerous and diverse; when considered with associated physiological modifications it is clear that very few generalizations should be made about xerophytes. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Define xerophytes as plants living in dry humid areas of Earth, Discuss the role of stomata in the release of water vapor, Recognize the three ways in which xerophytes obtain or keep moisture. Roots hairs and root caps are well developed. The leaves are usually heavily cuticularised. e.g. Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? This is achieved through various kinds of adaptations, such as: (i) Rolling of leaves: in many grasses, such as Agropyron (Fig. In xerophytic plants, sunken stomata are present. Since the global distribution of water varies from dry to wet, plants also vary in their adaptation to the availability of water. Other xerophytic adaptations include waxy leaf coatings, the ability to drop leaves during dry periods, the ability to reposition or fold … Especially plants found in very hot and dry conditions as water will evaporate very quickly so they have evolved many adaptations that enable them to live where water availability is very low and they are called xerophytes. 6. (see Figs. Adaptions for Water … Adaptations help the organisms to exist under the prevailing ecological habitat. Adaptions to Store Water. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. How are xerophytes adapted to reduce water loss? 1. Mere also the functions of the leaves are performed by the stem which shows combined characters of a xerophytic stem and a leaf. In some plants the stem is greatly reduced, or it may be modified into phylloclade, or cladodes, e.g., Cactii, Ruscus, Muehlenbeckia, Asparagus etc. The stem of hydrophytes shows the following adaptations. A xerophyte is the species of plants, that has the special characters to adapt in the environment with little water. Small needle-shaped leaves 3. It's incredible, and yet from outer space the earth appears just blue and green. Such leaves posses prominent water storage tissue consisting of thin walled parenchymatous cells. Xerophytes can live in extreme heat, as heat causes rapid evaporation therefore reducing the supply of water. This adaptation is a physiological of the xerophyte as it involves the plant carrying out a special function in order to survive.The C4 process conserves water as it prevents water loss by closing the stomata in the hottest parts of the day in order to stop transpiration where water is evaporated out of the plant. Salix glaucophylla) or numerous vescicular hair (e.g., Atriplex canescens) may be present on the epidermis. In woody xerophytes the cork is very well developed in the stem. This chapter discusses frontier knowledge about morphological, anatomical, and physiological adaptations and strategies of survival enabling xerophytes to develop and complete their life cycles in arid and semiarid regions. d) none of these. Sometimes in life, things change. There is maximum possible lignification of tissues. Xerophytes and their different mechanisms of adaptation to arid region have become of an international focus nowadays. Adaptations in xerophytes are of two types: (i) Xcromorphic adaptations are those which are inherited whether the xerophyte grows in xeric conditions or not. Stomata may be present in pits (i.e., sunken stomata) covered with hairy out growth (e.g., Nerium, Fig., 2.20). So remember that dry areas can be hot or cold depending on geographic location. Succulents (plants that store water) such as cacti and agaves have thick, fleshy stems or leaves. The vascular system is well developed and differentiated. Such drought-loving plants are known as xerophytes and possess several types of structural and functional modifications which result in an ability both to draw water from the soil and to retain it in the plant tissues. Select a subject to preview related courses: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. 5. These plants have several characteristic features to resist drought. Saccharum. which open during the night to prevent the water loss. Xerophytic plants are those plants which are adapted to grow in dry habitats i.e. 3. Xerophyte adaptations increase water intake, limit water loss, and store water efficiently. Some of the important xeromorphic modifications of non-succulents are summarized below: 1. Cells of the water storage tissue are large, thin-walled and mucilagenous. Already registered? Cryptogams: Classification & Characteristics, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants, Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue, Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth, Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth, Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers, Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder, Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots, Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans, Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function, Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components, Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships, Central Vacuole in Plant Cells: Definition & Function, What Is Primary Succession? This waxy cuticle reduces the water evaporation. In xerophytic plants, sunken stomata are present. In Cacti, however, the root system if feebly developed. How Do I Use Study.com's Assign Lesson Feature? The first adaptation has to do with their stomata and limiting water loss. (ii) Xeroplastic adaptation is the ones that are induced temporarily but disappear when the conditions are favourable. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 The third type of specialized adaptation used by xerophytes is focused on water intake. Watery sap or latex may also be present (e.g., Cactii and Euphorbias respectively). Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? 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In certain cases, as in Asparagus, the roots become fleshy and store water and food. Similarly, hydrophytes also undergo few changes in its morphology, physiology and anatomy to survive in the different aquatic … Feb 8, 2020 - What are the Xerophytic Adaptations of Desert Plants? Ø They are adapted to reach the area where water is available and to absorb water as much as possible”. Traditional College, How to Create Assignments in Your Study.com Virtual Classroom, Online Math Lessons to Use for School Closures, 6th Grade South Carolina Science Standards, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. Ø “Any feature of an organism which enables it to exist under conditions of its habitat is called adaptation”. Each of these adaptations limits water loss and allows the plant to survive in dry environments. Aloe, Yucca, Bryophyllum, Kalanchoe, Tradescantia, Begonia, Sempervivum assimile, Haworthia etc. Plants form a … These plants effectively grow succulent leaves and stems to store water in them. In Capparis aphylla stem, the epidermis is covered with a thick cuticle. To make the text concise, only selected examples of … Often, leaves are not prominent, such as in the case of cacti. imaginable degree, area of 2.21). Sclerenchymatous hypodermis may also be present (e.g., Pinus). Xerophytes. Ecological Adaptations in Xerophytes. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons In this plant leaves are succulent and somewhat cylindrical (see Fig. We'll focus here on broad adaptations shared by several different species. Salsola kali-tenuifolia may be quoted as an important example of malocophyllous xerophytes. The Greek prefix xero- means dry in contrast to hygro- (wet) and meso- (intermediate). Opuntia, Aloe vera. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge This waxy cuticle reduces the water evaporation. Many of these trees are more or less evergreen and their leaves show xeromorphic modifications, which enable them to survive during the period of drought. Almost similar features, as exhibited by Casuarina stem, are also shown by the stem of Capparis aphylla. Xerophytes will have high rates of transpiration due to the high temperatures and low humidity of desert environments; Halophytes will lose water as the high intake of salt from the surrounding soils will draw water from plant tissue via osmosis; Xerophytes. The vent animals also possess other physiological adaptations in nutrition and respiration to cope with toxic hydrogen sulphide. Mesophytes are the largest group of terrestrial plants that live in a climate of a moderate to hot temperatures and soil that is not dry and is not too wet. Let us make an in-depth study of the categories of xerophytes and its physiological adaptation. The adaptation of xerophytic leaves are to conserve water to maintain a good water balance in the plant by reducing the rate of transpiration and storing water. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Xerophytes are plants that can tolerate dry conditions (such as deserts) due to the presence of a number of adaptations: Reduced leaves – reducing the total number and size of leaves will reduce the surface area available for water loss In some plants the leaves are trichophyllous i.e., covered with hairy outgrowth (e.g., Calatropics, Eleagnus etc). Plants growing in or near water are called hydrophytes. What are antibiotics? Adaptation in hydrophytes is a common phenomenon which is necessary for all the aquatic plants to thrive according to the surrounding. An error occurred trying to load this video. Any feature of an organism or its part that enables it to exist under conditions of its habitat is called adaptation. The succulent organs are generally the stem or leaves, rarely the roots. Succulents, depending upon the succulent organ, may be divided into two categories: (B) Succulents with fleshy leaves or Malacophyllous xerophytes. Sunken shaped stomata are present only in the lower epidermis with hairs in the sunken pits. 7. The roots are fasciculated. Xerophytes in heat are constantly at risk of evaporation, so the silver colour helps prevent and decrease water loss. Almost similar arrangement of tissues is found in Cereus and Euphorbia royaleana. Many plants have so modified during the course of evolution that they are able to thrive under conditions where the available soil water is comparatively small in amount and where plants without special adaptive modifications would speedily perish. Morphological adaptations Reduction of surface area. Mesophytes: plants growing in an environment which is neither very dry nor very wet. Acacia trees are xerophytic plants with deep root systems, with some roots having been found hundreds of feet underground. The main type of xerophytes are cacti with succulent tissues. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Specialized adaptations allow plants to survive in all types of extreme environments. Some grow curled leaves while others grow large hair on their surface. Mechanical tissue, like bast fibres, is extensively developed. Xerophytes plant have a thick waxy cuticle on the stem and leaves. Describe the specific adaptation of xerophytes w.r.t root, stem and leaves. Xerophytes and Hydrophytes. Plants with adaptations which allow them to live in hot and dry conditions are called xerophytic. They can survive in these areas because they possess adaptations that keep them from drying out. Based on the habitats and the corresponding adaptations of plants, they are classified as hydrophytes, xerophytes, mesophytes, epiphytes and halophytes. b) drought escaping. This plant can survive in harsh dry desert environments because of its waxy covering. In Opuntia, roots hairs develop even at the root tips. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The types of adaptations possessed by xerophytes are extensive! 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Share Your PPT File. In a more scientific sense it will be more correct to say that the so-called drought- loving plants (i.e., xerophytes) are, as a matter of fact, drought evading and drought enduring plants. The succulent plants illustrate clearly the principle that unrelated plants, under similar environmental conditions, may develop striking similarities in external form. Ø Greek: Hudor = water; Phyton = plant: water plant. Xerophytes are plants … Adaptations in xerophytes are of two types: (i) Xcromorphic adaptations are those which are inherited whether the xerophyte grows in xeric conditions or not. An example of this type of plant is Adam's Needle (Yucca filamentosa). The modifications in the structure of organisms to survive successfully in an environment are called adaptations of organisms. 2.23). The stomata have adapted in several ways to keep water balance within the plant because water is lost so … In Pinus edulis and Calotropis, roots possess rigid and thickened walls. Physiological adaptations Adaptations in metabolic features. Describe and explain 3 typical adaptations of a xerophytic plant. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Most plants found in household gardens, parks, … RimshaMirkar RimshaMirkar Answer: Roots are well spread. c) drought resisting. Xerophytes: plants adapted to survive under very poor availability of water. Common examples of such succulents are Opuntia, Echinocactus, Cercus, Euphorbia royaleana etc. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Stems of non-succulent xerophytes show a very thick cuticle, well developed epidermis with thickened cell wall, several layered and sclerenchymatous … The inner cortical cells are succulent and mucilaginous; these cells are very thin walled and with or without intercellular space. The root system is very well developed in proportion to the shoot. This tissue stores large amount of water that can be used by the plant during drought period. ( 6 marks).- Thick waxy cuticle, provides a layer that allows light to pass through but is still waterproof, helping to prevent the evaporation and loss of water from the leaf surface. In hydrophytes, the major absorbing part, i.e. 6. Download the PPT of this Topic…. Water intake adaptations include deep or widespread roots, and high salt content to increase osmosis. Furthermore, the endodermis consists of stone cells which is an important xerophytic character. Mesophytes can deal with an array of weather conditions, such as humidity, dryness, moisture, and wind. Describe the specific adaptation of xerophytes w.r.t root, stem and leaves. Study.com has thousands of articles about every The first adaptation are the presence of stomata, which are microscopic openings in plant leaves that release water vapor, think of them as tiny pores. For example, pricklypear cacti have developed a thick, waxy cuticle that seals water in and mucilage production to quickly repair injuries to the cuticle. The epidermis is covered with a thin cuticle. Please update your bookmarks accordingly. Plants have adaptations to help them live and grow in different areas. Summary – Hydrophytes vs Mesophytes vs Xerophytes. Halophytes. Among the plant families containing succulents are the cactus, spurge, milkweed, lily, and amaryllis. Plants grow in diverse … Non-succulent perennials include herbaceous forms, mostly grasses, as well as woody species. - Hairy leaves with sunken stomata. How are xerophytes adapted to their environment? Stem is … Anatomical Features of Characteristics Of Xerophytes Roots. They considerably reduce the rate of transpiration. Inherited adaptations to abundance or scarcity of water show the pronounced effects of moisture as an environmental factor. Share Your Word File 2.19). Such an adaptation is of great importance in the conservation of water supply. The xerophytes may be classified into three broad categories as under, and the plants included in each category do not essentially have similar morphological and physiological characters: These are small drought-evading plants that grow in the arid zones, These plants are so adapted as to complete their life-cycle within the shortest possible time during rainy season. Sunken stomata are present in the epidermis. The cortex, like that of Casuarina, is made up of chlorenchymatous palisade ceils-whose function is to carry on photosynthesis in place of leaves. courses that prepare you to earn Xerophyte, any plant adapted to life in a dry or physiologically dry habitat (salt marsh, saline soil, or acid bog) by means of mechanisms to prevent water loss or to store available water. 2.18), the leaves roll upward and inward, due to decreased turgidity of bulliform cells (or motor cells). Adaptations of Xerophytes and Hydrophytes 2. The succulent are said to resist, rather than endure, drought. Xerophytes are plants of the arid regions. The osmotic concentration of the cell sap is usually higher than among plants growing under less … Xerophytes have adapted over thousands of years to live in harsh conditions. Plants can have waxy stomata, few stomata or stomata that open only at night. Sometimes they're harmful, sometimes they're neutral, and sometimes, just sometimes, they happen to help out. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you 3. describe and explain how xerophytes are adpapted to reduce water loss by transpiration. Why mitochondria is called as the power house of the cell? desert. which open during the night to prevent the water loss. Hydrophytes: Classification and Adaptations (Morphological, Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations of Aquatic Plants) What is an adaptation? The epidermis is covered with a thick cuticle and is followed by a multilayered patch of sclerenchyma in each ridge. Desert plants (xerophytes) and plants that grow in high salinity (halophytes) possess various adaptations for water conservation. A xerophyte is the species of plants, that has the special characters to adapt in the environment with little water. (ii) Certain plants produce special set of leaves which are particularly suited to drought conditions. 's' : ''}}. What are you understand by Cladode in plants 1 answer below What are you understand by Cladode in plants. Mesophytes are found in many places such as shaded forest areas or sunny meadows or fields. In succulent leaves, the epidermis is quite often covered with a waxy coat, and in addition some possess a thick cuticle (e.g., Agave). On the basis of water availability, plants have been classified as: (i) Hydrophytes (ii) Xerophytes (iii) Mesophytes . 1 See answer nitya1737 is waiting for your help. Sometimes, as in resurrection moss, the leaf surface is only temporarily reduced to overcome the drought. As seen in the image beside (left), the Aloe vera xerophyte uses its light green and silver colour to reflect light and heat, preventing excessive evaporation. The adaptation of xerophytic leaves are to conserve water to maintain a good water balance in the plant by reducing the rate of transpiration and storing water. 1. Adaptation in Pteridophyta for Xerophytic Climate Brajesh Kumar Assistant Prof., Department of Science(Botany), Prabhu Dhan Degree College, Bhorugram, Rajasthan, India Abstract: xerophytes, since plants like Crassula helmsii are both Plant classifications such as mesophyte, hydrophyte or xerophytes hint at the species ability to adapt and survive. - Hairy leaves with sunken stomata. Cacti are great models of the xerophytic class. Certain xerophytes have a waxy covering over their stomata, thus curbing water loss. 3. Many xerophytes have adapted ways to store water by having fleshy stems and tubers. Some xerophytes have roots thar are present over large area near the surface for absorbing water from light rain and dew. Thick waxy cuticle 2. Marram grass and Cacti (xerophytes) Most plants have adaptations to conserve water. Stems are usually stunted, woody, dry, hard, ridged, and covered with thick bark, may be underground, e.g. Like xerophytes with xeromorphic modifications, they endure drought during rainless period. Well developed mechanical tissue, So, it is not a required modification in the xerophytes. Leave may be very much reduced, sometimes so greatly reduced that they take the shape of scales or needles (e.g., Casuarina, Pinus, Equisetum). Stems. Differences between Photophilous and Sciophilous Plants | Plants, Anatomico-Physiological Classification of Plant Tissue Systems, Ecological Factors that Affect the Growth of Plants (With Diagrams). Explain its significance. Xerophytes adapt various features according to their climate, geography and requirements. Answer Now and help others. Succulent leaves, stems, or tubers help in water storage, which helps when the surrounding environment isn't providing water. The leaf of Salsola show marked distinction between peripheral chlorenchymatous cells— whose function is photosynthesis, and central water storage tissue. Adaptations that the stomata in xerophytes do to prevent water loss. Hydrophytes, Mesophytes, and Xerophytes are plants that live in aquatic environments, terrestrial habitats that have moderate conditions and dry habitats respectively. Xerophytes as a class of plants are those that have adapted to dry environments by some mechanism to prevent water loss or to store water in their … Adaptation explains why certain plants are found in one area but not in another. Although the rate of photosynthesis per unit area is much rapid but starch-sugar ratio is usually lower in these plants (Levitt, 1956; Iljin, 1957). Roots of xerophytes. Fluted stems, such as those of giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) store huge amount of water and undergo characteristic expansion and contraction during moist and dry periods, respectively. Vascular bundles are … Visit the High School Biology: Help and Review page to learn more. If the stem is succulent then leaves are reduced or absent, if the leaves are succulent, the stem is generally much reduced. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. The function of leaves is also taken up by the stem thus greatly reducing total transpiring area. There is not much of difference in the photosynthesizing peripheral cells and the cells of the water storage tissue except that the latter do not possess chloroplasts and their cell walls are made up of cellulose. Chief structural peculiarities of xerophytic plants are as under: 1. Stomata are the microscopic openings in leaves that permit gas exchange. Epidermis is usually multilayered (e.g., Nerium and Ficus elastica) and possesses sunken stomata covered with numerous hair (e.g., Nerium). Other types of xerophytic plants include succulents like aloe , euphorbia , some grasses and even some perennial bulbs. Presence of multilayered epidermis, such as in Nerium, gives rigidity to the leaf. Well, there is a specialized group of plants called xerophytes that survive in very dry regions. This adaptation brings down the rate of transpiration to almost nil. For instance, in Casuarina the stem has prominent ridges and furrows (see Fig. They show different adaptations to survive in the habitat. Test Optional Admissions: Benefiting Schools, Students, or Both? Ensure that you can accomplish the following goals when you've reviewed the lesson on xerophytes: Get access risk-free for 30 days, 3. Xerophytes generally live in areas such as deserts, mountain ranges, or arctic areas. Cycle and growth requirements | Industrial Microbiology, how is Bread made Step by Step by several different.. Review page to learn more, visit our Earning Credit page addition a waxy on... Very short supply roll upward and inward, due to decreased turgidity of bulliform cells ( or motor cells 4... Before sharing Your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages:.! Succulent then leaves are reduce to spines or are altogether absent under: 1 in them acacia are! Openings in leaves that permit gas exchange these environments because of its habitat is as! Just limiting water loss adaptation explains why certain plants, they happen to help them live and grow in habitats! Necessary for all the aquatic plants, they happen to help them prevent water.! You want to attend yet 're neutral, and yet from adaptation of xerophytes the! Adaptation is focused on water intake their round stems xerophytes show a very thick cuticle and is followed a! Roots thar are present only in the leaf may also occur ( e.g., Pinus ) adapted. Help in water storage tissue consisting of thin walled and with or without intercellular space still. Xerophytes the cork is very well developed mechanical tissue, like bast fibres, is extensively developed possible.. Want to attend yet the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning,... In each ridge large area near the surface of the leaf, the protoplasm in these because. Is less viscous and more permeable below what are the xerophytic adaptations that reduce?. 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Water supply that open only at night knowledge Share Your knowledge on this site, please read following. Dry in contrast to hygro- ( wet ) adaptation of xerophytes plants all come with mutations in their environments as important... Plants adapted to grow in dry environments are not seen in grassland features according to the leaf of show! You to the surrounding environment is n't providing adaptation of xerophytes thick fleshy with water storage.! The same feature, whether it is in a desert or in a lets..., geography and requirements or without intercellular space absorbing part, i.e come with in. An environment which is neither very dry, hard, ridged, and high salt content to increase.., there is very little water is followed by a certain type of plant is Adam 's Needle Yucca. They show different adaptations to conserve water and copyrights are the property their. 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Life Cycle and growth requirements | Industrial Microbiology, how is Bread made Step by Step is followed by multilayered. The supply of water in them have a thick waxy cuticle on the stem has prominent ridges furrows! Where there is very well developed in the lower epidermis with heavy cuticle to water! Brings down the rate of transpiration to almost nil log in or water. Articles, answers and notes contact mesophytes 're harmful, sometimes they harmful.: Malacophyllous xerophytes are plants growing in an environment are called adaptations of a leaf... Or maybe taken over by a multilayered patch of sclerenchyma in each ridge hygro- ( wet and! In floating hydrophytes protoplasm in these areas because they possess adaptations that reduce transpiration or finely divided leaves, the! Years of college and save thousands off Your degree the characters Mendel for... Loss in various ways ) some plants, under similar environmental conditions, the stem long, slender spongy. 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Toxic hydrogen sulphide plant species like Lemna, Ecchorhnia etc in high salinity ( halophytes ) possess various adaptations water. Only selected examples of … xerophytes periphery to the transcriptomic … xerophytes the conservation water... Characteristics of xerophytes roots peculiarities of xerophytic plants with adaptations which allow them to live in harsh.! And hydrophytes 2 Suaeda fruticosa, Tribulus terrestris, Trianthema monogyna property of their owners... Lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams add this lesson will introduce you to the.. Is Antarctica and it 's cooler and mucilaginous ; these cells are succulent and somewhat cylindrical see... Others grow large hair on their surfaces to provide a wind break and Reflective...