Wigle had beaten up a tax collector and burned his house; Mitchell was a simpleton who had been convinced by David Bradford to rob the U.S. mail. [88] Historians Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick argued that the military expedition was "itself a part of the reconciliation process", since a show of overwhelming force would make further violence less likely. WHISKEY REBELLION. [48] In June, Neville was burned in effigy by a crowd of about 100 people in Washington County. Holt writes that earlier historians had misidentified the six counties represented by the flag. McFarlane later died. [22] Whether by design or not, large distillers recognized the advantage that the excise gave them and they supported it. The government commissioners told the committee that it must unanimously agree to renounce violence and submit to U.S. laws and that a popular referendum must be held to determine if the local people supported the decision. Washington himself rode at the head of an army to suppress the insurgency, with 13,000 militiamen provided by the governors of Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The Whiskey Rebellion occurred in western Pennsylvania in 1794 and ended that same year. The rebels who wound up being arrested ultimately escaped punishment. Pour autoriser Verizon Media et nos partenaires à traiter vos données personnelles, sélectionnez 'J'accepte' ou 'Gérer les paramètres' pour obtenir plus d’informations et pour gérer vos choix. Tax rebels harassed several whiskey tax collectors and threatened or beat those who offered them office space or housing. Two were convicted of treason, but Washington later pardoned them. By 1802, Congress repealed the distilled spirits excise tax and all other internal Federal taxes. "'So That's What the Whiskey Rebellion Was! Shays Rebellion was when farmers revolted and burned down courthouses and caused lots of damage. For farmers on the western frontier, such a journey was expensive, time-consuming, and beyond their means. [6], A new U.S. federal government began operating in 1789, following the ratification of the United States Constitution. Background [29] As a result of this and other petitions, the excise law was modified in May 1792. The Whiskey Rebellion was a 1794 uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania in protest of a whiskey tax enacted by the federal government. Wells was, like Neville, one of the wealthier men in the region. [125] President Washington and Martha Washington attended a performance of the play in Philadelphia in January 1795. The militia apprehended approximately 150 men and tried them for treason. [26] Opposition to the tax was particularly prevalent in four southwestern counties: Allegheny, Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland. In the end, Washington and Hamilton did not need to lead troops into combat against fellow Americans. Objective. [66] The rebels retreated to nearby Couch's Fort to gather reinforcements. How old was Martin Luther King Jr when he first attended college? The episode exposed a deep fissure in early American society, a bitter split between financiers in … While all three rebellions were motivated by their opposition to burdensome taxes, neither Daniel Shays nor John Fries ever gathered more than a few hundred supporters at any one time. Supporters of the excise argued that there was a difference between taxation without representation in colonial America, and a tax laid by the elected representatives of the American people. It was a great disappointment to Hamilton, who had hoped to bring rebel leaders such as David Bradford to trial in Philadelphia...and possibly see them hanged for treason. ", Snyder, Jeffrey W., and Thomas C. Hammond. [36][37] In 1792, Hamilton advocated military action to suppress violent resistance in western North Carolina, but Attorney General Edmund Randolph argued that there was insufficient evidence to legally justify such a reaction. Richard A. Ifft, "Treason in the Early Republic: The Federal Courts, Popular Protest, and Federalism During the Whiskey Insurrection", in Boyd. [42], Federal tax inspector for western Pennsylvania General John Neville was determined to enforce the excise law. This preview shows page 7 - 10 out of 12 pages.. How did the Whiskey Rebellion end differently than Shays’ Rebellion?. Two civilians were killed in these operations. Being afterwards invited to his quarters he made enquiry into the circumstances of the man [an incident between an "Itinerant Person" and "an Old Soldier" mentioned earlier in the journal (p. 3)] & seemed satisfied with the information. 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