While in the first century, i.e., from 1757 to 1857, the British crown indirectly ruled India, in the second century, i.e., from 1858 to 1947, the British crown directly ruled India through the Viceroy appointed by the Monarch. Consider the following statements about Revolt of 1857: 1. यद्यपि … Topics: Indian Rebellion of 1857, Mughal Empire, British Empire Pages: 4 (1360 words) Published: August 10, 2012. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. Majumdar concludes that it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the so-called first national war of independence of 1857 is neither the first, nor national, nor a war of independence as it was not preplanned and was limited to certain pockets in North India. The Revolt of 1857 convinced the British the futility of interfering in the traditional socio-religious customs of India. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. It paved the way for the rise of the modern national movement. The following were the results of the Revolt of 1857:- i) The rule of the East India Company came to an end. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. Ashok Mehta in his book The Great Rebellion expressed the view that the revolt was national in character. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. Because of this the revolt of 1857 failed in India. Defiant to the very end and refusing to surrender, he escaped to Nepal early in 1859, never to be heard of again. A He was commander-in-chief of the army of Nana … The British crown reinstated the Taluqdars of Oudh to their old positions. Also Read: Storm Centres of 1857 Revolt and their Leaders. The Queen made it clear that there was to be no distinction between one individual and another on the pretext of race, religion, sex and creed. It marks the end of an era of mercantile capitalism and early colonial rule and the beginning of direct imperial hegemony of the British crown. Contradicting the above views of nationalist motivated perceptions, R.C. The revolt of 1857 originated with the mutiny of the Sepoys. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. End of Company Rule: The political result of this great revolt was the end of company’s rule in India. All the ruling chiefs and kings were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. Savarkar in his banned book. What we notice in this period was abandonment of social and educational welfare measures by the British purposefully and willingly. Chakravarty, Gautam. Results of the revolt: The great uprising of 1857 was an important landmark in the history of modern India. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. The results of the 1857 revolt may be subdivided as: (iii) Religious, judicial and diplomatic effects, and. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. An anxious conscious attempt on the part of the British to minimize the grievances of Indians and to restrict it only to a section of army’s revolt. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. The results of the great revolt of 1857 A.D. had been far-reaching. The Revolt of 1857 took place one hundred years after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. He was to look after the formulation of the British policies in India. The policies and laws introduced by the Company created discontentment among the rulers, landlords, peasants, tribals and sepoys and all wanted an end to the colonial rule. It marks the end of an era of mercantile capitalism and early colonial rule and the beginning of direct imperial hegemony of the British crown. According to Sir John Seale, the Revolution of 1857 was a rebellion of the selfish and not national soldiers, which had no leadership or support.Sir John Lawrence has described it as a military rebellion, and the main reason for this is the fat cartridge. The administrative apparatus in India was centralized effectively due to the improvement in communications. The Rani Jhansi had died on the field of battle earlier on 17 June 1858. The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. A very disturbing feature of post-mutiny period in India was the growth of social distance between the Hindus and Muslims which ultimately led to communalization of social life and partition of India on communal lines. Madras, Bombay, Bengal and the Western Punjab remained undisturbed. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. The British crown gave up the policy of subordinate isolation and advocated a policy of subordinate union in respect of native states. » The immediate event which angered the sepoys was about the ammunition for the new rifles they had to use. It is also known as India’s First war of independence. Surender Nath Sen is of the view that: “The mutiny became a revolt and assumed a political character when the mutineers of Meerut placed themselves under the king of Delhi and a section of the landed aristocracy and civil population declared, in his favour. The Revolt was suppressed. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. It was started by the sepoy of the company which arouses the gathered grievances of the people against the Company administration and of their dislike for the foreign administration. On 2nd August 1857 … Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In India, The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes), The Revolt of 1857 in India: Causes, Spread and Other Details, The Revolt of 1857 —the First War of Independence, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. The revolt started as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) in the service of the English East India Company in Meerut, a town northeast of Delhi. The Revolt of 1857 also regarded as India’s Ist War of Independence was a significant event in Indian history. As if it is not sufficient, orthodoxy, religious superstitions, communal, caste and religious discrimination began to be practiced by the Indians. Tara Chand described it as “War of Nation’s Independence” in his book. The Company … The Revolt of 1857 was the first sign that the Indians wanted to end British rule and were ready to stand united for this cause. The results of the great revolt of 1857 A.D. had been far-reaching. He was put to death after a hurried trial on 15 April 1859. Since the time it erupted, all historians have been engaged in the futile exercise of labelling the Uprising of 1857 with some descriptive word or other- such as mutiny , revolt , revolution , national The 7th Awadh Regiment which defied its officers on May 3 met with a similar fate. As a result of such studies, it is now estab­lished that the relationship between land revenue settlement and the revolt is very minimum. Indian sepoys and people were short of modern weapons and other materials of war. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of Independence against the British. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. By 1859, Kunwar Singh, Bakht Khan, Khan Bahadur Khan of Bareilly, Rao Sahib brother of Nana Sahib, and Maulavi Ahmadullah were all dead, while the Begum of Avadh was compelled to hide in Nepal. The Three results of the Revolt of 1857. The cumulative effect of British expansionist policies, economic exploitation and administrative innovations over the years had adversely affected the positions of all rulers of Indian states, sepoys, zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans, pundits, maulvis, etc. TOS4. The Revolt of 1857 was a major outbreak but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of … There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. Nana's troops were responsible for the massacre at Kanpur. 1. Nana Sahib was defeated at Kanpur. The Royal Princes were captured and butchered on the spot. Content Guidelines 2. There is no unanimity among scholars regarding the nature of the revolt of 1857 and a debate took place between 1950-1960 focusing attentions on three perspectives: sepoy mutiny, national struggle or first war of independence or a manifestation of feudalist revival. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. Died at Lucknow in December 1857. Political Causes: The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large … The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. Sometimes they behaved more like a riotous mob than a disciplined army. In case of the rulers of the Indian states, the crown made categorical announcement that all the treaties and agreements entered into by the East India Company will be honoured and respected and made it clear that no renewal was necessary. Q 8: In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? Indian Rebellion of 1857A 1912 map of Northern IndiaThe Revolt of 1857-59 showingthe centres of rebellionincluding the principal ones:Meerut, Delhi, Cawnpore(Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi, andGwalior.Date 10 May 1857 - 1859Location India (cf. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. At the end, we may conclude by agreeing with Tarachand: “imperi­alist Britain treated India as a satellite whose main function was to sweat and labour for the master, to sub-serve its economy and to enhance the glory and prestige of the empire”. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. The nature of the 1857 event has become so emotive that it gave scope to multiple perspectives. As mutineers were captured, they were often killed on the spot, and many were executed in dramatic fashion. J.R. Holmes expressed the opinion that it was a conflict between civilization and barbarism. It was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Companys rule. Reese viewed it as a religious war against Christianity. Revolt of 1857 – Causes The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. ii) Denial of pension to Nana … It proved to be a source of encouragement to the National freedom struggle. Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. The rebel units did not have a common plan of action, or authoritative heads, or centralized leadership. The British crown agreed to provide employment to the Indians in the bureaucratic structure of the times, which was denied previously. They could pass on their kingdom to their heirs; … The 1857 Revolt remained concentrated in the Central India and some parts of north-Western India. The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. Out of the fifteen, eight were appointed by the crown and the rest were to be appointed by the court of the directors. The major impact was the introduction of Government of India act which abolished the rule of British East India Company and marked the beginning of British raj that bestowed powers in the hands of the British government to rule India directly through … This Act of 1858 completed the process initiated by the Charter Act of 1853. Answers:The British made various changes in their policies after the revolt of 1857. The British government was now established. The Indian War of Independence of 1857, published anonymously in 1912 argues that it was the first war of Indian independence inspired by the lofty ideal of self-rule by Indians through nationalist upsurge. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. They gave up the idea of the ruthless expan­sionist policy of their territorial boundaries in and outside India. The designation of the Governor General of India was changed to Viceroy. Further, the British tried to portray civil disturbances as the actions of selfish vested interests of the landholders and the princes. Further, it is now suggested that the roots of the revolt are traceable to the pockets of relative poverty due to ecological factors such as less fertile soil and severe revenue assessments imposed on arable land caused undue misery to the cultivator. History of Freedom Movement in India. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. It was a result of the anger against the government. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? Privacy Policy3. Their attempt was to prove that the colonial rule, if not welcomed, was not detested, as many Indian historians argue. 4. Some of them are as follows: The British Crown took the direct responsibility of governance in India. In the place of the President of the Board of Control, the Secretary of State for India was appointed. For example, the Begum of Avadh quarreled with Maulavi Ahmadullah and the Mughal princes with the sepoy-generals. The soldiers from Punjab supported the Company. The Emperor was tried and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862. The strong opposition to the social legislation especially coming from the orthodox elements in both the Hindu and the Muslim community put the British on the defensive. The “British Parliament” passed another Act in 1858 and exchanged the forces of the “East India Company” to the “British Crown”.. 2. Revolt of 1857 in Assam. The Revolt was suppressed. In the sphere of judiciary, the Sadar courts and Crown’s Supreme Court were amalgamated into High Courts which were established in the presidency towns of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. The artillery section was exclusively kept under the British. The Revolt of 1857 covered the way for the future struggle for freedom in India. The power to govern India was transferred from Company to the British crown. In fact, the Revolt of 1857 played an important role in bringing the Indian people together and imparting to them the consciousness of belonging to one country. Ans: Changes in the policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857: (i) British Crown took over the control of administration − The British Parliament passed an Act in 1859, under which, the powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. ...The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion and the Sepoy Mutiny.The many names are the result of the conflict's continuing importance to India's national sense of identity. The most significant result of the mutiny was the transfer of power from a trading company to a sovereign power of Britain by the Government of India Act of 1858. 2. These Sepoys were drawn mainly from the peasant population of North and North-West India. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. » The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. Towards 1857 revolt In 1856, Lord Canning succeeded Lord Dalhousie as the Governor General of India. Result of revolt of 1857. Suppressed the revolt at Arrah in August 1857. They were also equipped with superior military techniques. If we do not consider any historical event on the basis of its success then the revolt of 1857 A.D. was never a tragedy. What began as a fight for religion ended as a war of independence for there is not the slightest doubt that the rebels wanted to get rid of the alien government and restore the old order of which the king of Delhi was the rightful representative”. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. On 24 April 1857, some soldiers stationed at Meerut also refused to use the cartridges. Introduction The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the first organised revolt against British rule in India. 1. Revolt of 1857 1. Making the “British Queen” as their “Sovereign Paramount” the kings were allowed to pass their land to their own heirs or the adopted sons.. 3. The Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organisation to rule over a country. Revolt of 1857 Causes and Results . Modern nationalism was yet unknown in India. The cartridges that were used in the rifles had to be bitten open. Patriotism meant love of one's small locality or region or at most one's state. The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. "The Indian Mutiny and the British Imagination." It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company 's army. It did not spread to South India and most of Eastern and Western India. The Revolt of 1857 is also called as Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Insurrection, and the First War of Independence. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. The Bengal Army was virtually abolished. These imperatives guided British policy … The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of colonial rule. Results of the Revolt of 1857: The Revolt of 1857 served as a rude and caustic reminder to the British that they were alien in India and because of the very nature of their domination is colonial and exploitative, could not reconcile the Indians to their rule. There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. Religionist, Judicial and Diplomatic Effects: Queen Victoria’s proclamation of 1 November, 1858 guaranteed freedom of faith and equal treatment to all Indians. It was to a great extent a popular revolt led by exiled princes and displaced landlords. India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown. 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