Table 3-8 Multicast Address Range Assignments, Globally Scope - Group communication between organization and Internet, Source Specific Multicast (SSM) - PIM extension for one-to-many unidirectional multicast communication, GLOP - Inter-domain Multicast group assignment with reserved global Autonomous System (AS). Table 3-9 Best Practice Policing Guidelines. When deploying policer policies on the access-layer switches the following platform limitations must be taken into consideration: •The Catalyst 2960 and 2975 can only police to a minimum rate of 1 Mbps; all other platforms within this switch-product family can police to a minimum rate of 8 kbps. All underlying hardware changes remain transparent to higher-layer protocols, thus minimizing impact to network and application performance, and improving network convergence. •Intelligent network services—QoS, Network virtualization, etc. Since both the school sites, and district office networks use the collapsed core design, the routing configuration of the core routers is the same. With this design, the default behavior of Layer-2 and Layer-3 network control protocols is to create a redundant view between two systems. If the source is not listed in the accept-register filter list (configured on the RP), then the RP rejects the Register and sends back an immediate Register-Stop message to the DR. Building routing boundaries and summarizing the network addresses minimizes topology size and synchronization procedure, which improves the overall network resource utilization and reconvergence. This model works well for TCP-based data applications that adapt gracefully to variations in latency, jitter, and loss. •IEEE 802.1s - MST—Provides up to 16 instances of RSTP (802.1w) and combines many VLANs with the same physical and logical topology into a common RSTP instance. StackWise switch provisioning is done dynamically by the StackWise protocol. This simplifies the network operation, since there is no need to configure or tune FHRP protocols. Default Layer-2 configuration eliminates the need for FHRP, automatically eliminating the asymmetric forwarding behavior which causes unicast flooding in the network. VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary Layer -messaging protocol that manages the addition, deletion, and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide basis. You can edit this Network Diagram using Creately diagramming tool and include in your report/presentation/website. •Summarization on network boundaries is very important to design as it prevents unnecessary routing updates to flow across the WAN interface, when there is a link-state change in the network. •Network Load—The overall network design, from data center to School Site must have enough capacity to carry the anticipated traffic (data and control traffic) to ensure good application performance. The access switch will build a forwarding topology pointing to same distribution switch as a single Layer-3 next-hop. EIGRP adjacency protection guidelines discussed earlier for the core network, apply equally to routed access in the access-distribution block. •Classification—IETF standard has defined a set of application classes and provides recommended DSCP settings. This will allow a common configuration template and simplify operations and troubleshooting procedures. This includes defining trust points, and determining which policies to enforce at each device within the network. Built-in mechanic to prevent routing loop in network. The resiliency of a system design is often categorized as follows: •Network Resiliency—Provides redundancy during physical link outages (e.g., fiber cut, bad transceivers, incorrect cabling, etc). •Shared trees—A shared tree uses a single common root placed at a chosen point in the network. For a detailed discussion of QoS, refer to the Enterprise QoS SRND at the following URL: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterprise/WAN_and_MAN/QoS_SRND/QoS-SRND-Book.html. Step 5 Create the final template macro to allow for simplified configuration, Design details, explaining how to select the features needed for a given deployment, and how to implement the features is provided in Chapter 9, "Access Layer Security Design.". It is used to classify all the network layers step-by-step in logical form by describing each step in detail. At Layer 1, auto-negotiation takes care of physical signaling and fault detection. Static RP implementation offers same RP redundancy and load sharing and a simple ACL can be applied to deploy RP without compromising multicast network security. This subsection focuses on implementing EIGRP in the access-distribution block. Per-port/per-VLAN-based QoS creates a nested hierarchical policy-map that operates on a trunk interface. The following output from a Layer-3 switch verifies that the local multicast ports are in router mode, and provide a snooped Layer-2 uplink port-channel which is connected to the collapsed core router, for multicast routing: This section provides basic multicast security configuration guidelines to prevent an unauthorized host in the network from acting like a rogue source in the network and sending multicast traffic. A STP loop is created when a blocking port in a redundant topology erroneously transitions to the forwarding state. Following is a example configuration to implement IP Event Damenping: The following output illustrates how the IP event dampening keeps track of port flaps and makes a decision to notify IP routing process based on interface suppression status: In a multilayer access-distribution design, the Layer-2 and Layer-3 demarcation is at the collapsed core-distribution device. The Supervisor-6E supports up to 8 traffic classes for QoS mapping. To simplify the overall system design, and network operations, it is recommended to use consistent design and platform selections in the access-layer role, at the district office and school sites. Or an attacker could establish a "fake" EIGRP adjacency and advertise a best metric default-route into the network to black hole and compromise all critical traffic. Similarly, if the CIR required at each school site is 100Mbps, and if there are 100 school sites, then the bandwidth required at the district office is 10Gbps. VLAN assignment can have a significant impact on network performance and stability. It is chosen for its price performance, and the high availability features within the device. This section provides implementation and best practices guidelines the multi-layer design. All the state-machines and dynamic information of SSO-capable protocols are automatically synchronized to the standby supervisor module. Figure 3-40 High-Availability Categories and Technologies. One switch from the stack is selected automatically to serve as the master, which manages the centralized control-plane process. As mentioned in the previous section, each circuit is represented by a VLAN using dot1q trunk. E-LAN is also known as Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS). •Multiple routing adjacencies between two Layer-3 systems. The SupV supervisor can have up to four egress queues like the Cisco Catalyst 29xx and 35xx/37xx Series switches. Figure 3-45 shows the difference between these services. Multicast improves efficiency by reducing data processing on the source server, and sending a single flow into the network. Implementing Layer-3 function in the access-switch does not require a physical or logical link reconfiguration; the same EtherChannel in access-distribution block can be used. In order to maximize the benefits of these and other technologies, schools must find network solutions that resolve the challenges of today while helping future-proof the network for tomorrow’s growing access and device needs. Implementing EtherChannel results in a network topology with a single destination entry for single next-hops, via the egress logical EtherChannel port. The burgeoning demand for Wi-Fi bandwidth and capacity is stressing school IT … Deploying another set of 3750-ME does not change any WAN design principles, and except for VLAN and IP address, all the configurations can be replicated to the secondary system. It passes 802.q trunks across the SP network known as Q-in-Q. The QoS configuration is the same for a multilayer or routed-access deployment. •Detect and remove unidirectional links and multi-drop connections from the Etherchannel bundle. The Cisco Catalyst 4500 can support up to 64 EtherChannels, whereas the Cisco Catalyst 3750 StackWise can support up to 48 EtherChannels per-system. The high availability framework is based upon the three resiliency categories described in the previous section. Announcing itself as a non-transit stub Layer-3 router is one way to notify the distribution router that it should not include the Layer-3 access switch in the EIGRP topology recomputation process. The Layer-3 access switch can be deployed to announce itself as a stub router that acts as a non-transit router and does not connect any other Layer-3 stub or non-stub routers. The Schools SRA uses the 1G interface to connect to the Cisco 3750-MetroE WAN aggregation switch. In a large multilayer network, the aggregation layer may consume more CPU cycles due to the large number of MAC and ARP discovery and processing and storing required for each end-station. Most school campus' do not grow significantly larger over time, and most school campus' are small enough to be well served by a two-tier hierarchical design, where the core and distribution layers are collapsed into one layer. Following is the configuration of the WAN egress policy: © 2020 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Validating operational resiliency is beyond the scope of this design guide, refer to CCO documentation for deployment guidelines. UDLD protocol must be implemented to prevent STP loop that may occur in the network due to network malfunction, mis-wiring, etc. Best practice design is to deploy redundant network modules within the Catalyst 4500 switch and the Cisco 3750-E StackWise Plus solution in the small school site collapsed core network. The drawback with this method of source-filtering is that the pim accept-register command on the RP, PIM-SM (S,G) state is still created on the source's first-hop router. The primary difference is the use of the Cisco Catalyst 3750-E Stack Wise Plus switch in the collapsed core/distribution layer. To learn more about HCBWFQ, refer Ethernet Access for Next Generation Metro and Wide Area Networks Design Guide at the following URL: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterprise/WAN_and_MAN/Ethernet_Access_for_NG_MAN_WAN_V3.1_external.html. The QoS implementation remains the same whether deployed as 3750-E StackWise or as a standalone switch. Allowing only assigned VLANs on a trunk port automatically filters rest. The new active master switch can continue to use the MAC addresses assigned by the old master switch, which prevents ARP and routing outages in the network. The network design is the same as the district office network design, with the same performance capabilities, scalability options, and high availability features. Design Model - 2 is for a medium to small school site. Table 3-12 Cisco StackWise Centralized and Distributed Control-Plane. In the Schools Service Ready Architecture, the school sites are connected to the district office over Wide Area Network (WAN) links. As recommended in the "EtherChannel Fundamentals" section, there should be single logical point-to-point EtherChannel deployed between collapsed core and access-layer. To minimize the control-plane impact and improve network convergence the Layer 3 up links should be diverse, originating from member switches, instead of the master switch. 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