They re-established Oyo as more centralized and expansive than ever. [9], The Yoruba of Oyo went through an interregnum of 80 years as an exiled dynasty after its defeat by the Nupe. [11] Each province was supervised by a governor appointed directly by the Alaafin of Oyo. [19] The Oyo did not use guns in its major conquests. http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oyo_Empire&oldid=992681732, States and territories established in the 15th century, States and territories disestablished in 1905, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox family with unknown parameters, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Oyo Empire grew to become the largest Yoruba state. There was also an entrenched military culture in Oyo where victory was obligatory and defeat carried the duty of committing suicide. [39] The Eso were appointed for their military skill without regard to heritage, although de facto dynasties of Eso were also known to exist. Oyo state was one of the three states carved out of the old western state of Nigeria on the 3 rd of February 1976 during states creation exercise which originally included Osun state but was later divided in 1991. Ọyọ State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high density urban centers. According to tradition, the Alaafin was expected to commit ritual suicide thereafter. [7] The next oba, Eguguojo, conquered nearly all of Yorubaland. There is a Polytechnic, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, with 2 satellite campuses at Eruwa and Saki, and a State-owned University, The Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso which is jointly owned by Oyo and Osun State Governments. Former empire in present-day Benin and Nigeria, Oyo Empire at its furthest extent during the 17th–18th centuries. The Oyo Empire was the most politically important state in the region from the mid-17th to the late 18th century, holding sway not only over most of the other kingdoms in Yorubaland but also over nearby African states, notably the Fon Kingdom Of Dahomey the modern Republic of Benin to They are: Afijio                                     Akinyele                              Egbeda, Ibadan North                     Ibadan North-East           Ibadan North-West, Ibadan South-west         Ibadan south-East           Ibarapa Central, Ibarapa East                       Eruwa                                   Ido, Irepo                                     Iseyin                                    Kajola, Lagelu                                   Ogbomoso North             Ogbomoso South, Oyo West                            Atiba                                     Atisbo, Ona Ara                                Oyo East                              Ori Ire, Orelope                               Surulere                               Ogo Oluwa, Oluyole                                Olorunsogo                        Ibarapa North, Iwajowa                               Itesiwaju                             Saki East. For example, the Bashorun orchestrated many religious festivals; he did this in addition to being commander-in-chief of the army, which gave him considerable independent religious authority. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Benin and Western Nigeria (including Southwest zone and the western half of Northcentral zone). [11] These tributary states were led by their own rulers, titled Obas,[23] who were confirmed by the Alaafin of Oyo. [29], There was a high degree of professionalism in the army of the Oyo Empire. [25] He was responsible for keeping tributaries safe from attack, settling internal quarrels between sub-rulers, and mediating between those sub-rulers and their people. [12] The Oyo often demanded tribute in slaves. Ibadan which is the capital of the state has been the centre of administration of the old Western Region of Nigeria since the existence of the British colonial rule. [50] The Oyo army was decisively defeated, ending Oyo's hegemony over Dahomey. Oyo State, popularly referred to as the “Pace Setter” is one of the 36 States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. [30] Junior members of the Ilari did menial tasks, while seniors acted as guards or sometimes messengers to the other world via sacrifice. History of Ogbomosoland P (also Ogbomoṣo) is a city in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. The site is remembered as Ajaka. Oyo State was carved out of the Western State in 1976. [11] These forces were often utilized in Oyo's distant campaigns on the coast or against other states. [14], Ajaland was the last layer added to the empire. It was the most important and authoritative of all the early Yoruba principalities. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Metropolitan Oyo corresponded, more or less, to the Oyo state prior to the Nupe invasion. [28] During Oyo's imperial period, the Are-Ona-Kakanfo personally commanded the army in the field on all campaigns. It was formed in 1976 from the former Western State, and originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. It came into existence with the break up of the old Western State of Nigeria during the State creation exercise in 1976 and it originally included Osun State, which was split off in 1991. The Democratic Structure of Yoruba Political-Cultural Heritage. [14] It met little serious opposition until the early 18th century. [30] The hundreds of Ilari were divided evenly between the sexes. [22] These layers were Metropolitan Oyo, southern Yorubaland, the Egbado Corridor and Ajaland. Top six of such places are: Oyo State has eighteen (18) Local Government Areas grouped under the three zones. Not long after the war was won, Oranmiyan had a son, Ajuwon Ajaka; much later Arabambi was born by the woman from Tapa (Nupe). The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, … [7], Under his successor, Abipa, the Yoruba repopulated Oyo-Ile and rebuilt the original capital. It was founded in the mid 17th century. The military waited until the 19th century to adopt them. Afonja took cause with Awole when the latter commanded him to attack Alaafin Abiodun's maternal home, Iwere-Ile. [13] The alliance victory defined borders between the neighboring states. During the reign of Onigbogi, Oyo suffered military defeats at the hands of the Nupe led by Tsoede. [40] As stated earlier, Metropolitan Oyo was divided into six provinces divided evenly by a river. [29] The leader of the Ogboni, the Oluwo, had the unqualified right of direct access to the Alaafin of Oyo on any matter. They were, however, supervised by Ajele. "The Four Forest States of Africa." Provincial forces were thus grouped into two armies, under the Onikoyi and the Okere for the east and west side of the river respectively. The crystalline Basement Complex rocks are subdivided into four units namely: i. Oyo never encompassed all Yoruba-speaking people, but it was the most populous kingdom in Yoruba history. Geography. For over a century, the Yoruba state had expanded at the expense of its neighbors. the people reject you, the world rejects you and the gods reject you also). In 1728, the Oyo Empire invaded the Kingdom of Dahomey in a major campaign of its cavalry. Taking a cue from their Nupe enemies (whom they called "Tapa"), the Yoruba rearmed with armor and cavalry. The majority of the people are members of the Yoruba ethnic group. The Oyo Mesi developed as a check on the Alaafin's power, preventing the Alaafin from being an autocrat; they compelled many Alaafins to commit suicide during the 17th and 18th centuries.[32]. Inorder to prevent this occurrence, it became traditional for the crown prince to be made to commit ritual suicide upon his father's death. After Oyo's return from exile, the post of Are-Ona-Kakanfo was established as the supreme military commander. Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau. Fasanya, Akin (2004). History. 2nd ed. Around the capital was a tall earthen wall for defense with 17 gates. After the destruction of Oyo-Ile, the capital was moved further south, to Ago d’Oyo. [40] He was required to live in a frontier province of great importance to keep an eye on the enemy and to keep him from usurping the throne. The Oyo Empire grew to become the largest Yoruba state. New alaafins of Oyo were therefore seen as being appointed by the gods. The population was approximately 245,000 in 2006 census. The population was approximately 245,000 in 2006 census. Chief among the responsibilities of the Bashorun was the all important festival of Orun. [29] The Oyo Mesi spoke for the politicians while the Ogboni spoke for the people and were backed by the power of religion. Oyo was reduced in size when Osun state was created out of its eastern portion in 1991. History. The Oyo Empire developed a highly sophisticated political structure to govern its territorial domains. The lead representative of Oyo in the corridor was the Olu, ruler of the town of Ilaro. This was done by sending Bashorun (The prime minister) to present either an empty calabash or a dish of parrot's eggs to him and pass a sentence of rejection, known as Awon Eniyan Koo (i.e. It came into existence with the break up of the old Western State of Nigeria during the State creation exercise in 1976 and it originally included Osun State, which was split off in 1991. There the local chief entertained him and provided a large snake with a magic charm attached to its throat. About 22% of the population lived in large areas with populations exceeding 100,000, and over 50% lived in cities made up of 25,000 or more people. Oranyan made an agreement with his brother to launch a punitive raid on their northern neighbors for insulting their father Oduduwa, the first Ooni of Ife. [ 40 ] as stated earlier, metropolitan Oyo was divided into and... Collecting tribute and contributing troops under local generalship to the military aggressiveness of Oyo in the mid-17th by. Southwest of Yorubaland, 8 November 1887, as cited by Law R Afolayan. Yoruba of metropolitan Oyo was also expected to commit suicide by gaha finally!, horses, kola nuts, ivory, cloth and slaves Oyo corresponded more... Their absence was unavoidable the post of Are-Ona-Kakanfo was established as the Aremo was quite powerful in own. Chief among the Yoruba invaded Dahomey seven times before finally subjugating the small kingdom in 1748 much significance among Yoruba... Urbanization in 1950 was close to the Oba 's market called 'Oja-Oba ' 25 ] at the,... Craft making and wood carving kept the Oba 's market called 'Oja-Oba ' Benin paying... But it was formed in 1976 estimated at 638 thousand U.S. dollars a.... Eldest son usually succeeded his father 's throne thrusting lances or spears and also with swords, destroying Oyo a! That established its power over a vast area through a combination of autonomy... Of Ilorin began in 1793 provided a large snake with a magic attached! Ife and allowed his sub-chiefs too much independence gaha was subsequently executed history of oyo state. Representative of Oyo in the region setters ” market called 'Oja-Oba ' - your. ] heavy cavalry on larger imported horses was armed with heavy thrusting lances or spears and also with swords was! Sub-Courts of Oyo was divided into four layers defined by relation to the Oba,,! They were regarded as Ekeji Orisa, meaning `` deputy of the Oyo Empire, where the serpent stopped and... 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