The object of border strip irrigation is to advance a sheet of water down a narrow strip between low ridges or borders and to get the water into the soil as the sheet advances. Surface irrigation methods include furrow, border, and basin irrigation (Figs. Surface Irrigation. The general surface irrigation process includes four phases: advance, storage, depletion, and recession (Holzapfel et al. The strip Furrow irrigation is particularly suited to broad-acre row crops such as cotton, maize and sugar cane. The time and space references shown in Figure 1 are relatively standard. Other articles where Surface irrigation is discussed: horticulture: Water management: In surface irrigation water is distributed over the surface of soil. Figure 5 shows two typical furrow irrigated conditions. In: Annual Report 1988, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. Figure 7. (210–VI–NEH, draft April 2006) Part 623 National Engineering Handbook Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all it Advance: When irrigation is applied to the field, water advances across the surface until it covers the entire area. There are several disadvantages with furrow irrigation. The wetting and drying cycles reduce infiltration rates resulting in faster advance rates and higher uniformity[3] than continuous flow. The advance phase 3 1.2.2. 1.6–1.8). Automation is easily applied. In basins, for example, the post-cut off period may only involve a depletion phase as the water infiltrates vertically over the entire field. In the late 1970s, a high-speed microcomputer technology began to emerge that could solve the basic equations describing the overland flow of water quickly and inexpensively. Conveyance, distribution and management structures At about the same time, researchers like Strelkoff and Katapodes (1977) made major contributions with efficient and accurate numerical solutions to these equations. A basin is typically square in shape but exists in all sorts of irregular and rectangular configurations. Furrow irrigation configurations (after USDA-SCS, Each surface system has unique advantages and disadvantages depending on such factors as were listed earlier like: (1) initial cost; (2) size and shape of fields; (3) soil characteristics; (4) nature and availability of the water supply; (5) climate; (6) cropping patterns; (7) social preferences and structures; (8) historical experiences; and (9) influences external to the surface irrigation system. DESIGN OF SURFACE IRRIGATION, LECTURE SUPPORTING MATERIALS 2 purpose of the physical system is to supply water to an area for crop production. Figure 6. Reclamation of salt-affected soils is easily accomplished with basin irrigation and provision for drainage of surface runoff is unnecessary. It is also practiced in various horticultural industries such as citrus, stone fruit and tomatoes. In a field irrigated from a head ditch, the spreading of water over the field depends somewhat on the method of surface irrigation. What is surface irrigation in Iraq like today? Surface irrigation involves movement of water as shallow flow over planes or in channels. It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years. It is possible to improve the performance of most surface . Furrow irrigation avoids flooding the entire field surface by channelling the flow along the primary direction of the field using 'furrows,' 'creases,' or 'corrugations'. The spacing between adjacent furrows is governed by the crop species, common spacings typically range from 0.75 to 2 metres. As the inflow ceases the water will continue to runoff and infiltrate until the entire field is drained. The depletion phase is that short period of time after cut-off when the length of the field is still submerged. The most common piped method of furrow irrigation uses plastic or aluminium gated pipe like that shown in Figure 14. Is the water supply mainly from canals? Needs Assessment --1. Surface irrigation is the oldest yet still the most common form of irrigation throughout the world although it traditionally suffers from many problems such as low efficiency and low uniformity. • Strip widths ~ 30 to 60 ft – What is wrong with wide borders? Two very recent additions to the efforts to control surface irrigation systems more effectively are the 'Surge Flow' system (Figure 6) developed at Utah State University, USA and the 'Cablegation' system developed at the US Department of Agriculture's Snake River Water Conservation Research Center in Kimberly, Idaho, USA. 3. The structural elements of a surface system perform several important functions which include: (1) turning the flow to a field on and off; (2) conveying and distributing the flow among fields; (3) water measurement, sediment and debris removal, water level stabilization; and (4) distribution of water onto the field. 2.3 Requirements Followings are the surface irrigation advantages. The bays are typically longer and narrower compared to basin irrigation and are orientated to align lengthwise with the slope of the field. The process of surface irrigation can be said to include four phases: advance phase; storage phase; depletion phase; and recession phase. Water is applied to the top end of each furrow and flows down the field under the influence of gravity. The four phases of surface irrigation 3 1.2.1. Figure 1. The Equations describing the hydraulics of surface irrigation are the continuity and momentum equation.These equations are known as the St.Venantequation.In general, the continuity equation expressing the conservation of mass, can be written as: (31.1) The momentum equation expressing the dynamic equilibrium of the flow process is: (31.2) Where, y - Depth of flow (m) t -Time from beginning … These are generally situations where the value of the crop is very small or the field is used for grazing or recreation purposes. The surface irrigation system is one component of a much larger network of facilities diverting and delivering water to farmlands. Figure 11. The higher inflow reaches the end of the field sooner but it increases both the duration and the magnitude of the runoff. The WinSRFR program, A typical riser outlet, known as an alfalfa valve, is shown in Figure 13. Crops which are sensitive to flooding and soils which form a hard crust following an irrigation can be basin irrigated by adding furrowing or using raised bed planting. The perimeter dykes need to be well maintained to eliminate breaching and waste, and must be higher for basins than other surface irrigation methods. The second phase of surface irrigation … Flooding • Definition/Description • Advantages – – • Disadvantages – – Graded borders • Covers entire surface • Used for close-growing crops • Slopes: 0.5% - 4% – What is wrong with a steeper slope? In surface irrigation events, there are four phases i.e. For the purposes of describing the hydraulics of the surface flows, the drainage period is segregated into the depletion phase (vertical recession) and the recession phase (horizontal recession). In this configuration, the head ditch is divided into a series of level bays which are differentiated by a small change in elevation. Basin irrigation is favoured in soils with relatively low infiltration rates. Water is applied to the first bay (usually the highest in elevation) and when the desired depth is applied water is permitted to drain back off that bay and flow to the next bay which is at a lower elevation than the first. When an irrigation project has been designed for either small basins or furrows and borders, the capacity of control and outlet structures may not be large enough to improve basins. Examples of these alternative practices are discussed and illustrated in Section 5. Lining materials include slip-form cast-in-place, or prefabricated concrete (Figure 9), shotcrete or gunite, asphalt, surface and buried plastic or rubber membranes, and compacted earth. Traditionally, the design and operation of surface irrigation systems are based on experience as well as on historically successful designs. Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. As water is applied to the top end of the field it will flow or advance over the field length. The water is applied rapidly to the entire basin and is allowed to infiltrate. During advance, the water moves down the channel. For the complete system to work well, each must work conjunctively toward the common goal of promoting maximum on-farm production. This results in poor uniformity with high application at the top end with lower application at the bottom end. Many basins are so small that precision equipment cannot work effectively. The stream size per unit width must be large, particularly following a major tillage operation, although not so large for basins owing to the effects of slope. Figure 8. Surface Irrigation Methods • Flooding • Borders • Basins • Furrows. It is useful to note here that in observing surface irrigation one may not always observe a ponding, depletion or recession phase. 2.2.4 Uncontrolled flooding. Surface irrigation is the introduction and distribution of water in a field by the gravity flow of water over the soil surface. on for 1 hour off for 1½ hour). Figure 5. Common surface irrigation systems used are rill irrigation, furrow or border irrigation. 2.2 Surface irrigation methods This can be achieved through increasing flow rates or through the practice of surge irrigation. If there is long duration between two rotations, there is likelihood of water stress resulting in wilting point during the recession stage. Furrow systems use outlets which can be directed to each furrow. for optimal performance, 2.1 Introduction to surface Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. In the surface methods of irrigation, water is applied directly to the soil surface from a channel located at the . The tailwater deep percolation trade-off can also be solved by collecting and recycling the runoff to improve surface irrigation performance. Depletion is the interval between cut off and the appearance of the first bare soil under the water. The recession phase describes the time period while the water front is retreating towards the downstream end of the field. Surface irrigation systems are best suited to soil with low to moderate infiltration capacities and land with relatively uniform terrain and slope less than 2 to 3 percent (Booher, 1974). The distinctive feature of furrow irrigation is that the flow into each furrow is independently set and controlled as opposed to furrowed borders and basins where the flow is set and controlled on a border by border or basin by basin basis. After the water reaches the field ready to be irrigated, it is distributed onto the field by a variety of means, both simple and elaborately constructed. Phase 1, when the water dalirkan to land, there will be the addition of water on the surface of the land to flooding the entire surface of the land. Surface Irrigation Process. These systems will be dealt with in more detail in a later section. There is substantial field evidence that surface irrigation systems can apply water to croplands uniformly and efficiently, but it is the general observation that most such systems operate well below their potential. Drain back level basins (DBLB) or contour basins are a variant of basin irrigation where the field is divided into a number of terraced rectangular bays which are graded level or have no significant slope. The crop is planted on the ridge between furrows which may contain a single row of plants or several rows in the case of a bed type system. performance, 2.3.2 Wastewater recovery and reuse, 2.4.2 Most surface irrigation systems derive their water supplies from canal systems operated by public or semi-public irrigation departments, districts, or companies. Microcomputers and programmable calculators provide several features for today's irrigation engineers and technicians. 1.2. Throughout the world, this is the most commonly used type of irrigation process. Figure 3. Estimation of the infiltration rate using the infiltrometer method 5 1.3.2. The designs of these structures have been standardized since they are small in size and capacity. The period of time between the end of the advance phase and the shut-off of the inflow is termed the wetting, ponding or storage phase. Surface irrigation can either flood a field fully (for deep-rooted crops), or you have systems which wash through your garden and drain at the other end. Water infiltrates through the wetted perimeter and spreads vertically and horizontally to refill the soil reservoir. The management of water in the field channels involves flow measurement, sediment and debris removal, divisions, checks, drop-energy dissipators, and water level regulators. There are many cases where croplands are irrigated without regard to efficiency or uniformity. It may be divided into the following four component systems: (1) water supply; (2) water conveyance or delivery; (3) water use; and (4) drainage. 4. The classification of surface methods is perhaps somewhat arbitrary in technical literature. Surface irrigation is an irrigation type where gravity force is used to distribute water over the soil surface. The aim of modern surface irrigation management is to minimize the risk of these potential adverse impacts. Furrows may range anywhere from less than 100 m to 2000 m long depending on the soil type, location and crop type. Most fields have a head ditch or pipeline running along the upper side of the field from which the flow is distributed onto the field. In traditional basins no water is permitted to drain from the field once it is irrigated. This is not to say, however, that furrow irrigation enjoys higher application efficiencies than borders and basins. The evaluation methods can be applied if desired, but the design techniques are not generally applicable nor need they be since the irrigation practices tend to be minimally managed. Surface irrigation is mainly divided in basin, border, and furrow systems. Water may be supplied using gated pipe, siphon and head ditch, or bankless systems. Before selecting surface irrigation over other types of irrigations, one must investigate the advantages and disadvantages of surface irrigation. Diversion structures perform several tasks including (1) on-off water control which allows the supply agency to allocate its supply and protects the fields below the diversion from untimely flooding; (2) regulation and stabilization of the discharge to the requirements of field channels and watercourse distribution systems; (3) measurement of flow at the turnout in order to establish and protect water entitlements; and (4) protection of downstream structures by controlling sediments and debris as well as dissipating excess kinetic energy in the flow. Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations that can broadly be classified as: • basin irrigation • border irrigation • furrow irrigation • wild flooding The distinction between the various classifications is often subjective. Estimation of the infiltration rate using the actual furrow method 7 1.3.3. The advance phase refers to that length of time as water is applied to the top end of the field and flows or advances over the field length. One of the innovations in surface irrigation, the These are: 1) The water supply subsystem 2) The water delivery subsystem 3) The water use subsystem The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. surface waters. The recession phase 4 1.3. As the inf… Consequently, some means of emergency surface drainage is good design practice. The interval between the end of the advance and when the inflow is cut off is called the wetting or ponding phase. Surface Irrigation is an unchanged process and it is older than its recognition. Small land holdings are generally not subject to the array of surface irrigation practices of the large commercial farming systems. irrigation, 2.3 Requirements for optimal The conveyance itself can be an earthen ditch or lateral, a buried pipe, or a lined ditch. However, this practice increases the tailwater problem because the flow at the downstream end must be maintained until a sufficient depth has infiltrated. Recession begins at that point and continues until the surface is drained. Surface irrigation systems have two principal sources of inefficiency, deep percolation and surface runoff or tailwater The remedies are competitive. 2.2.2 Border irrigation The period of time between the end of the advance phase and the shut-off of the inflow is termed the wetting, ponding or storage phase. To minimize deep percolation the advance phase should be completed as quickly as possible so that the intake opportunity time over the field will be uniform and then cut the inflow off when enough water has been added to refill the root zone. Furrow irrigation is conducted by creating small parallel channels along the field length in the direction of predominant slope. While these systems represent significant percentages in some areas, they will not be discussed in detail in this paper. This chapter uses volume balance methods to design surface irrigation systems. The infiltration rates are an unknown variable in irrigation practice. These systems are commonly used in Australia where rice and wheat are grown in rotation.[2]. The reduction in infiltration is a result of surface consolidation, filling of cracks and micro pores and the disintegration of soil particles during rapid wetting and consequent surface sealing during each drying phase. The field is divided into a number of bays or strips, each bay is separated by raised earth check banks (borders). Shorter furrows are commonly associated with higher uniformity of application but result in increasing potential for runoff losses. Of course it is always possible to encounter a heavy rainfall or mistake the cut-off time thereby having too much water in the basin. It may or may not directly wet the entire surface, but all of the flow paths have been completed. Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. Here, we will not detail out sub surface irrigation methods. The focus of surface irrigation engineering is at the water use level, the individual irrigated field. Very large mechanized farming equipment has replaced animal-powered planting, cultivating and harvesting operations. Basins and borders usually receive water through buried pipes serving one or more gated risers within each basin or border. The precision of preparing the field for planting has improved by an order of magnitude with the advent of the laser-controlled land grading equipment. It is widely utilised and therefore a well-known system, which can be operated without any high-tech applications. In the lesser-developed countries, trends toward land consolidation, mechanization, and more elaborate system design and operation are much less apparent. The speed of water movement is determined by many factors such as slope, surface roughness and furrow shape but most importantly by the inflow rate and soil infiltration rate. For borders and basins, open or piped cutlets as illustrated in Figure 11 are generally used. The movement of soil water curve . Furrows provide the irrigator more opportunity to manage irrigations toward higher efficiencies as field conditions change for each irrigation throughout a season. Phase 2, then the irrigation water will flow out of the land. Each bay is irrigated in turn using a combination of drainage water from the previous bay and continuing inflow from the supply channel. Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations which can be broadly classified as: (1) basin irrigation; (2) border irrigation; (3) furrow irrigation; and (4) uncontrolled flooding. to surface irrigation, 2.3 Requirements FLOOD IRRIGATION includes several methods: Border strip, basin, contour or bench border irrigation, flooding from contour ditches, wild flooding, and border ditch. Typical turnout from a canal or lateral (from walker end Skogerboe, 1987). 18 - 34 . Sloping borders are suitable for nearly any crop except those that require prolonged ponding. Surface water and groundwater monitoring and reporting programs are also likely to … A smaller wetted area reduces evaporation losses. Conveying water to the field requires similar structures to those found in major canal networks. This has been compounded by the fact that a single method is often referred to with different names. Increasing the advance rate not only improves the uniformity but also reduces the total volume of water required to complete the irrigation. The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. Border strip, otherwise known as border check or bay irrigation could be considered as a hybrid of level basin and furrow irrigation. Although surface irrigation is thousands of years old, the most significant advances have been made within the last decade. et al., 1971). It may be furrowed or corrugated, have raised beds for the benefit of certain crops, but as long as the inflow is undirected and uncontrolled into these field modifications, it remains a basin. Basins can be served with less command area and field watercourses than can border and furrow systems because their level nature allows water applications from anywhere along the basin perimeter. The water is applied to the top end of the bay, which is usually constructed to facilitate free-flowing conditions at the downstream end. [1] This is also a method of surface irrigation. Water is applied to individual borders from small hand-dug checks from the field head ditch. structures. [4] On those soils where surging is effective it has been reported to allow completion of the irrigation with a lower overall water usage and therefore higher efficiency and potentially offer the ability to practice deficit irrigation. Basin irrigation has a number of limitations, two of which, already mentioned, are associated with soil crusting and crops that cannot accommodate inundation. Then the irrigation water either runs off the field or begins to pond on its surface. In those cases where high levels of uniformity and efficiency are being achieved, irrigators utilize one or more of the following practices: (1) precise and careful field preparation; (2) irrigation scheduling; (3) regulation of inflow discharges; and (4) tailwater runoff restrictions, reduction, or reuse. The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. When the inflow stream is introduced by the upstream end of the plane, water advances with a sharply defined wetting front down the slope toward the downstream end in what is referred to here as the advance phase of the irrigation flow process. … Implementing management practices to control the discharge of irrigation water, tile drain water, stormwater, nutrients, pesticides, and sediments will continue to be important for all growers. simplicity with which different phases of the irrigation could be described. Probably the most interesting evolution in surface irrigation so far as this guide is concerned is the development and application of microcomputers and programmable calculators to the design and operation of surface irrigation systems. Surface irrigation, an inexpensive and inefficient method of irrigating crops, wasting much of the water applied which needs to be optimized through advance techniques (Strelkoff and Clemens, 2003). The advance phase refers to that length of time as water is applied to the top end of the field and flows or advances over the field length. A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and covers the field gradually. It significantly increases public health risk particularly if there is concern about reliability of the treatment and/or disinfection system. Surface irrigation (Figure 12.1) of secondary treated and disinfected effluent is permitted in NSW. Surge Irrigation is a variant of furrow irrigation where the water supply is pulsed on and off in planned time periods (e.g. Water levels are regulated in two bays simultaneously so that the lower bay has sufficient head to produce an advance phase flow in the furrows while in the upper bay the head is only sufficient to produce the cutback flow. The changes in the lesser-developed and developing countries are less dramatic. There are three types of Surface Irrigation: Level Basin Irrigation, furrow irrigation, and Border Strip Irrigation. In this guide, surface methods are classified by the slope, the size and shape of the field, the end conditions, and how water flows into and over the field. Irrigation scheduling is a theme covered separately by several publications such as the FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24 (Rev) by Doorenbos and Pruitt (FAO, 1977). Surface irrigation methods are the oldest, and are those that use the soil surface to conduct and infiltrate the applied water. The advance and recession curves are therefore trajectories of the leading and receding edges of the surface flows and the period defined between the two curves at any distance is the time water is on the surface and therefore also the time water is infiltrating into the soil. Conveyance, distribution and management structures, 2.4.2 Conveyance, distribution and management structures. Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation Part 623 NationalEngineeringHandbook (210–VI–NEH, September 2012) 4–v Figures Figure 4–1 Layout and function of irrigation system components 4–2 Figure 4–2 Basic phases of a surface irrigation event 4–3 Figure 4–3 Typical basin irrigation system in the Western United States 4… Figure 10. Volume balance methods compare the applied volume to surface and subsurface storage volumes in order to calculate parameters such as infiltration rate or the rate of water advance down the field. ( ilri ), Wageningen, the irrigation water will flow or advance over the soil type location... 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